When you find a bug in PostgreSQL we want to hear about it. Your bug reports play an important part in making PostgreSQL more reliable because even the utmost care cannot guarantee that every part of PostgreSQL will work on every platform under every circumstance.
The following suggestions are intended to assist you in forming bug reports that can be handled in an effective fashion. No one is required to follow them but it tends to be to everyone's advantage.
We cannot promise to fix every bug right away. If the bug is obvious, critical, or affects a lot of users, chances are good that someone will look into it. It could also happen that we tell you to update to a newer version to see if the bug happens there. Or we might decide that the bug cannot be fixed before some major rewrite we might be planning is done. Or perhaps it is simply too hard and there are more important things on the agenda. If you need help immediately, consider obtaining a commercial support contract.
Before you report a bug, please read and re-read the documentation to verify that you can really do whatever it is you are trying. If it is not clear from the documentation whether you can do something or not, please report that too; it is a bug in the documentation. If it turns out that a program does something different from what the documentation says, that is a bug. That might include, but is not limited to, the following circumstances:
A program terminates with a fatal signal or an operating system error message that would point to a problem in the program. (A counterexample might be a "disk full" message, since you have to fix that yourself.)
A program produces the wrong output for any given input.
A program refuses to accept valid input (as defined in the documentation).
A program accepts invalid input without a notice or error message. But keep in mind that your idea of invalid input might be our idea of an extension or compatibility with traditional practice.
PostgreSQL fails to compile, build, or install according to the instructions on supported platforms.
Here "program" refers to any executable, not only the backend server.
Being slow or resource-hogging is not necessarily a bug. Read the documentation or ask on one of the mailing lists for help in tuning your applications. Failing to comply to the SQL standard is not necessarily a bug either, unless compliance for the specific feature is explicitly claimed.
Before you continue, check on the TODO list and in the FAQ to see if your bug is already known. If you cannot decode the information on the TODO list, report your problem. The least we can do is make the TODO list clearer.
The most important thing to remember about bug reporting is to state all the facts and only facts. Do not speculate what you think went wrong, what "it seemed to do", or which part of the program has a fault. If you are not familiar with the implementation you would probably guess wrong and not help us a bit. And even if you are, educated explanations are a great supplement to but no substitute for facts. If we are going to fix the bug we still have to see it happen for ourselves first. Reporting the bare facts is relatively straightforward (you can probably copy and paste them from the screen) but all too often important details are left out because someone thought it does not matter or the report would be understood anyway.
The following items should be contained in every bug report:
The exact sequence of steps from program start-up necessary to reproduce the problem. This should be self-contained; it is not enough to send in a bare SELECT statement without the preceding CREATE TABLE and INSERT statements, if the output should depend on the data in the tables. We do not have the time to reverse-engineer your database schema, and if we are supposed to make up our own data we would probably miss the problem.
The best format for a test case for SQL-related problems is a file that can be run through the psql frontend that shows the problem. (Be sure to not have anything in your ~/.psqlrc start-up file.) An easy start at this file is to use pg_dump to dump out the table declarations and data needed to set the scene, then add the problem query. You are encouraged to minimize the size of your example, but this is not absolutely necessary. If the bug is reproducible, we will find it either way.
If your application uses some other client interface, such as PHP, then please try to isolate the offending queries. We will probably not set up a web server to reproduce your problem. In any case remember to provide the exact input files; do not guess that the problem happens for "large files" or "midsize databases", etc. since this information is too inexact to be of use.
The output you got. Please do not say that it "didn't work" or "crashed". If there is an error message, show it, even if you do not understand it. If the program terminates with an operating system error, say which. If nothing at all happens, say so. Even if the result of your test case is a program crash or otherwise obvious it might not happen on our platform. The easiest thing is to copy the output from the terminal, if possible.
Note: If you are reporting an error message, please obtain the most verbose form of the message. In psql, say \set VERBOSITY verbose beforehand. If you are extracting the message from the server log, set the run-time parameter log_error_verbosity to verbose so that all details are logged.
Note: In case of fatal errors, the error message reported by the client might not contain all the information available. Please also look at the log output of the database server. If you do not keep your server's log output, this would be a good time to start doing so.
The output you expected is very important to state. If you just write "This command gives me that output." or "This is not what I expected.", we might run it ourselves, scan the output, and think it looks OK and is exactly what we expected. We should not have to spend the time to decode the exact semantics behind your commands. Especially refrain from merely saying that "This is not what SQL says/Oracle does." Digging out the correct behavior from SQL is not a fun undertaking, nor do we all know how all the other relational databases out there behave. (If your problem is a program crash, you can obviously omit this item.)
Any command line options and other start-up options, including concerned environment variables or configuration files that you changed from the default. Again, be exact. If you are using a prepackaged distribution that starts the database server at boot time, you should try to find out how that is done.
Anything you did at all differently from the installation instructions.
The PostgreSQL version. You can run the command SELECT version(); to find out the version of the server you are connected to. Most executable programs also support a --version option; at least postmaster --version and psql --version should work. If the function or the options do not exist then your version is more than old enough to warrant an upgrade. If you run a prepackaged version, such as RPMs, say so, including any subversion the package may have. If you are talking about a CVS snapshot, mention that, including its date and time.
If your version is older than 7.4.7 we will almost certainly tell you to upgrade. There are tons of bug fixes in each new release, that is why we make new releases.
Platform information. This includes the kernel name and version, C library, processor, memory information. In most cases it is sufficient to report the vendor and version, but do not assume everyone knows what exactly "Debian" contains or that everyone runs on Pentiums. If you have installation problems then information about compilers, make, etc. is also necessary.
Do not be afraid if your bug report becomes rather lengthy. That is a fact of life. It is better to report everything the first time than us having to squeeze the facts out of you. On the other hand, if your input files are huge, it is fair to ask first whether somebody is interested in looking into it.
Do not spend all your time to figure out which changes in the input make the problem go away. This will probably not help solving it. If it turns out that the bug cannot be fixed right away, you will still have time to find and share your work-around. Also, once again, do not waste your time guessing why the bug exists. We will find that out soon enough.
When writing a bug report, please choose non-confusing terminology. The software package in total is called "PostgreSQL", sometimes "Postgres" for short. If you are specifically talking about the backend server, mention that, do not just say "PostgreSQL crashes". A crash of a single backend server process is quite different from crash of the parent "postmaster" process; please don't say "the postmaster crashed" when you mean a single backend process went down, nor vice versa. Also, client programs such as the interactive frontend "psql" are completely separate from the backend. Please try to be specific about whether the problem is on the client or server side.
In general, send bug reports to the bug report mailing list at
You are requested to use a descriptive subject for your email
message, perhaps parts of the error message.
Another method is to fill in the bug report web-form available
at the project's web site
Entering a bug report this way causes it to be mailed to the
<email@example.com> mailing list.
If your bug report has security implications and you'd prefer that it
not become immediately visible in public archives, don't send it to
pgsql-bugs. Security issues can be
reported privately to
Do not send bug reports to any of the user mailing lists, such as
These mailing lists are for answering
user questions, and their subscribers normally do not wish to receive
bug reports. More importantly, they are unlikely to fix them.
Also, please do not send reports to
the developers' mailing list
This list is for discussing the
development of PostgreSQL, and it would be nice
if we could keep the bug reports separate. We might choose to take up a
about your bug report on pgsql-hackers, if the problem needs more review.
If you have a problem with the documentation, the best place to report it
is the documentation mailing list
Please be specific about what part of the documentation you are unhappy
If your bug is a portability problem on a non-supported platform,
send mail to
so we (and you) can work on
porting PostgreSQL to your platform.
Note: Due to the unfortunate amount of spam going around, all of the above email addresses are closed mailing lists. That is, you need to be subscribed to a list to be allowed to post on it. (You need not be subscribed to use the bug-report web form, however.) If you would like to send mail but do not want to receive list traffic, you can subscribe and set your subscription option to nomail. For more information send mail to
<firstname.lastname@example.org>with the single word help in the body of the message.